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Esomeprazole is indicated:
- To relieve from chronic heartburn symptoms and other symptoms associated with GERD
- For the healing of erosive esophagitis
- For maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis
- In combination with amoxicillin and clarithromycin for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with duodenal ulcer disease.
- Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
- Acid related Dyspepsia
- Duodenal & Gastric ulcer
Dosage & Administration
Healing of Erosive Esophagitis: 20 mg or 40 mg Once Daily for 4-8 Weeks. The majority of patients are healed within 4 to 8 weeks. For patients who don’t heal after 4-8 weeks, an additional 4-8 weeks of treatment may be considered. Maintenance of Healing of Erosive
Esophagitis: 20 mg Once Daily (Clinical studies did not extend 6 months).
Symptomatic GERD: 20 mg Once Daily for 4 Weeks. If symptoms do not resolve completely after 4 weeks, an additional 4 weeks of treatment may be considered.
Helicobacter Pylori eradication: Triple Therapy to reduce the risk of Duodenal Ulcer recurrence-Esomeprazole 40 mg Once Daily for 10 days, Amoxicillin 1000 mg Twice Daily for 10 days, Clarithromycin 500 mg Twice Daily for 10 days.
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome: The dose is 20-80 mg once daily. The dosage should be adjusted individually and treatment continued as long as clinically indicated.
Acid-related Dyspepsia: 20-40 mg once daily for 2-4 weeks according to the response.
Duodenal ulcer: 20 mg once daily for 2-4 weeks. Gastric ulcer: 20-40 mg once daily for 4-8 weeks.
Injection: The recommended adult dose is 40 mg Esomeprazole given once daily by intravenous injection (not less than 3 minutes) or intravenous infusion (10 to 30 minutes). Esomeprazole IV injection should not be administered concomitantly with any other medications through the same intravenous site. Treatment with Esomeprazole IV injection should be discontinued as soon as the patient is able to resume treatment with Esomeprazole delayed-release capsules. Safety and effectiveness in paediatric patients have not been established.
The most frequently occurring adverse events reported with Esomeprazole include headache, diarrhoea, nausea, flatulence, abdominal pain, constipation and dry mouth. There are no difference in types of related adverse events seen during maintenance treatment upto 12 months compared to short term treatment.
Pregnancy & Lactation
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Animal studies have revealed no teratogenic effects. The excretion of esomeprazole in milk has not been studied. Breast-feeding should be therefore be discontinued if the use of esomeprazole is considered essential.
Precautions & Warnings
General: Symptomatic response to therapy with esomeprazole does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy.
Information for patients: Esomeprazole capsules should be taken at least one hour before meals. For patients who have difficulty swallowing capsules, one tablespoon of applesauce can be added to an empty bowl and the Esomeprazole capsules can be opened, and the pellets inside the capsule carefully emptied onto the applesauce. The pellets should be mixed with the applesauce and then swallowed immediately. The applesauce used should not be hot and should be soft enough to be swallowed without chewing. The pellets should not be chewed or crushed. The pellet/applesauce mixture should not be stored for future use. Antacids may be used while taking esomeprazole.
Use in Special Populations
Paediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness in paediatric patients have not been established.
Geriatric Use: No overall differences in safety and efficacy have been observed between the elderly and younger individuals, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out
Hepatic Insufficiency: No dosage adjustment is recommended for patients with mild to moderate hepatic insufficiency. However, in patients with severe hepatic insufficiency, a dose of 20 mg once daily should not be exceeded.
Renal Insufficiency: The Pharmacokinetics of Esomeprazole in patients with renal impairment are not expected to be altered relative to healthy volunteers as less than 1% of Esomeprazole is excreted unchanged in the urine.
A single oral dose of Esomeprazole at 510 mg/kg (about 103 times the human dose on a body surface area basis), has been lethal to rats. The major signs of acute toxicity are reduced motor activity, changes in respiratory frequency, tremor, ataxia, and intermittent clonic convulsions. There have been no reports of overdose with Esomeprazole. No specific antidote for Esomeprazole is known. Since Esomeprazole is extensively protein bound, it is not expected to be removed by dialysis. In the event of overdosage, treatment should be symptomatic and supportive. As with the management of any overdose, the possibility of multiple drug ingestion should be considered.
Infusion: Reconstitute one sterile single-dose vial of Esomeprazole IV Injection with 5 ml of the solvent (WFI) provided and further diluting the resulting solution within 0.9% Sodium Chloride solution or 5% Dextrose solution to make a final volume of 50 ml. The resultant infusion should be given intravenously over a period of 10-30 minutes. Chemical and physical in-use stability has been demonstrated for 12 hours after reconstitution with 0.9% Sodium Chloride solution or for 6 hours after reconstitution with 5% Dextrose solution. From a microbial point of view, the product should be used immediately. Any unused portion should be discarded.
Store at a temperature not exceeding 30°C in a dry place. Protect from light and moisture. Keep out of reach of children.